Basic Rules of the New People’s Army
The New People’s Army is under the supreme guidance of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought and the Communist Party of Philippines. It is the revolutionary army of the broad masses of the Filipino people against US imperialism, the comprador big bourgeoisie, the landlord class and the bureaucrat capitalists.
The New People’s Army is the principal organization of the Communist Party of the Philippines which takes the path of armed revolution according to Mao Zedong Thought. It is the main weapon to carry out the central task of the Party which is to seize and consolidate political power. It is the instrument which shall overthrow the present bourgeois reactionary puppet government and bring forth the victory of the people’s democratic revolution. It is an important tool which significantly contributes to the implementation of the Program for a People’s Democratic Revolution of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
The New People’s Army wholeheartedly serves the national and democratic interests of the people and is the main backbone of the people’s democratic dictatorship. It protects the people from the demonic forces of imperialist and feudal oppression and exploitation. It constantly tries to help the masses in their daily lives. It detests the smallest damage committed against the masses instilling in its officers and men the strict discipline that will prevent them from inflicting any damage to the people.
The New People’s Army which is armed with Mao Zedong Thought emerged after it repudiated the counterrevolutionary revisionist errors of the Lavas and Taruc as well as those others who advocate modern revisionism and opportunism whether “Left” or right. Within its ranks, it struggles against the purely military outlook, ultrademocracy, disobedience to organizational discipline, absolute equality, subjectivism, individualism, putschism and the ideology of the roving rebels.
The New People’s Army at present is composed of the best fighters who persevere in pursuing armed struggle and popularize the teachings of Mao Zedong. It continues to apply the universal truth of Mao Zedong Thought to the practice of the protracted people’s war in the Philippines.
While it adheres to the leadership of the working class and the Communist Party of the Philippines, the New People’s Army primarily integrates within itself the armed peasants waging agrarian revolution which is the main content of the people’s democratic revolution. In this context, the people’s democratic revolutions essentially a peasant war which is led by the proletariat.
In the countryside, the New People’s Amy vigorously struggles to change the backward villages and transform them to become the most developed political, military, economic and cultural bastions of the people’s democratic revolution. In order to accomplish this heroic task, the New People’s Army primarily relies on the masses of poor peasants and agricultural workers, while encouraging the middle peasants so as to neutralize the rich peasants. This is the revolutionary anti-feudal class line in the countryside.
The New People’s Army ensures independence, initiative and leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines and the proletariat over the national united front. This is achieved by waging armed struggle which tightly unites the peasantry and working class, as the genuine foundation of a broad national democratic unity.
All throughout the protracted people’s war, the New People’s Army shall rely mainly on the alliance of the proletariat and the peasantry, though it is always ready to work with other patriotic and progressive classes, organizations and individuals that sympathize with the armed struggle against US imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism.
The main strategic principle of the New People’s Army is a protracted people’s war in which its armed units continuously gather strength from the countryside based on people’s war, agrarian revolution and building its bases. This includes the strategy of encircling the cities from the countryside, defeating the enemy by portions until its strength wears out.
The people’s army has the determination to build bases and stable local government organs and advance in wives until it has effectively crushed the remnants of the enemy’s forces which are concentrated in big cities and military camps. It shall systematically create and develop consolidated guerrilla zones capable of running the local people’s government. The consolidated bases shall serve as a wide rear for expansion and creating new guerrilla zones and for the development of other democratic revolutionary forces.
The New People’s Army will pass through three strategic stages in waging the protracted people’s war. The first stage is the strategic defensive, wherein it maintains the initiative in tactical offensives against the strategic military advantage of the enemy. The second stage is the strategic stalemate, wherein its fighting capacity is more or less equal to that of the enemy. The third and the last stage is the strategic offensive, wherein the forces of the New People’s Army have developed their strength capable of assaulting the enemy forces in their very own fortifications within the cities and in big camps.
In the whole period of protracted people’s war, the New People’s Army has the political initiative because it unites revolutionary theory with revolutionary practice; because it is closely linked with the masses; and because it practices self-criticism for every mistake or weakness it commits.
The New People’s Army creates and uses different types of fighting units in conducting the protracted people’s war. The guerrilla forces defend the guerrilla bases and zones, pave the way for the formation and development of regular mobile forces. The self-defense units and the militia defend the masses in the localities but are not detached from their daily economic activities. The armed partisans in the cities perform special roles in sabotaging the enemy and punishing traitors in the cities and urban centers. All these fighting units of the New People’s Army are coordinated and make use of all methods of warfare brought about by the development of the masses and the objective conditions.
The New People’s Army fully understands that in performing its revolutionary task of crushing US imperialism, the comprador big bourgeoisie, the landlord class and the bureaucrat capitalists in the Philippines, it performs a heroic and honorable task for the broad masses of workers and peasants, as well as for the oppressed peoples of the world.
The struggle for the people’s democratic revolution as a stage towards socialism is both a national task and a proletarian internationalist act of the New People’s Army. The Philippine armed struggle weakens and contributes to the crushing of US imperialism, modern revisionism and all reaction all over the world. Likewise, the armed struggles waged by all other oppressed peoples weaken and help in crushing the enemy in the Philippines.
The New People’s Army has an internationalist responsibility to struggle towards the final annihilation of imperialism led by US imperialism, and for the worldwide victory of socialism.
I. The New People’s Army and the Communist Party of the Philippines
Point 1. The New People’s Army shall always adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines and thus, it must abide with all decisions, orders and directives of the National Congress, Central Committee, Political Bureau and the Military Commission of the Party,
Point 2. The Military Commission is the highest special organ of the Central Committee that receives regular and special reports from the lowest to the highest military command, and it shall issue appropriate policies, orders and directives.
Point 3. The Military Commission ensures that the Party leadership, organization and life is alive within the New People’s Army. The Party branch is based on the company level and the Party group shall work within each squad. All nonregular armed units are directly under the local Party committee.
Point 4. Party committees shall be created from branch level up to the succeeding higher levels and shall be responsible in maintaining the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines. These committees also see to it that good relations are developed between the army and the masses, between officers and men, among fighters and between the army as a whole and the local Party committees.
Point 5. The New People’s Army shall have its own Political Department which shall be responsible for the proletarian revolutionary education of all officers and men, for raising up proletarian revolutionary cadres from the army, for Party building, and mobilizing the masses especially in new areas of military work.
Point 6. A political officer shall be deployed in each regular mobile force unit, as well as in guerrilla forces in order to teach the fighters, and maintain Party organization and life.
Point 7. Territorial and unit commanders are responsible for internal military administration and operation in their respective areas and units while being guided by the Party at their corresponding levels. The number and special tasks of the deputy commanders shall be determined by the Military Commission.
Point 8. All district commanders, platoon leaders, and all succeeding higher officials must have studied in the Revolutionary School of Mao Zedong Thought.
Point 9. All nonregular fighting units like the guerrilla, militia, self-defense and armed city partisans are directly under the local Party committee. Nevertheless, they shall receive direct orders from the Military Commission or from the military command to link them with the regular mobile forces.
II. The Tasks of the New People’s Army
Point 1. The primary task of the New People’s Army at present is to wage a protracted people’s war in order to crush the reactionary state power and the interventionist forces of US imperialism, mobilize and defend the masses and advance their national and democratic interests.
Point 2. The New People’s Army shall help in organizing the barrio revolutionary committees and other local government organs.
Point 3. The New People’s Army shall serve the people in all possible means other than its military tasks.
Point 4. The New People’s Army shall conduct revolutionary propaganda work and mobilize the masses.
Point 5. The New People’s Army shall assist in organizing the local Party branches, local Party committees and revolutionary mass organizations.
Point 6. The New People’s Army shall participate in construction, production and economic work for its own needs, as well as for the needs of the Party and the masses.
Point 7. The New People’s Army shall help maintain public order. It shall arrest bad elements and take them to people’s courts for trial.
Point 8. Within the New People’s Army, different work sections shall be created for office work, training, internal peace and order, intelligence and surveillance, logistics, ordnance and maintenance, medical service, communication and transportation, construction, production and others.
Point 9. The guerrilla forces and regular mobile forces shall be allowed to rest from combat work for a short period of time especially if this shall serve for ideological, political and combat training; consolidation, recuperation and recovery; and the conduct of local political work.
III. Membership in the New People’s Army
Point 1. Anyone who is physically fit, regardless of age, sex, race, nationality or religion and has the capacity to fight and ready to participate in a protracted armed struggle against the reactionary state power, may be a umber of a fighting unit of the New People’s Army.
Point 2. Those who are interested to join the New People’s Army must express their intention to any army unit or headquarters, Party committee, Party member or revolutionary mass organization.
Point 3. The local Party committees, armed units of the New People’ Army, and the revolutionary mass organizations may initiate to accept individual and collective requests for membership in the people’s army or may directly recruit fighters and build new fighting units of the Ne People’s Army.
Point 4. The military command and the local Party committees which, are directly responsible in the area shall supervise and administer the recruitment of Red fighters.
Point 5. A higher military command or Party committee has the right to dissolve or rebuild any armed unit based on reasonable grounds.
Point 6. Individuals or groups who escaped from the enemy ranks or captured enemy troops may join the NPA provided that they undergo reorganization and reeducation. Their membership in the army will be confined after a thorough investigation done by the military command and the Party committee not lower than the provincial level.
Point 7. The New People’s Army shall conduct regular analysis of class origin, performance in work and readiness to fight of all its fighters in order to continue to upgrade their proletarian revolutionary qualities.
Point 8. The broad majority of members of the New People’s Army are armed fighters at all times, although some may be assigned to non- combat work but related to the fighting capacity of the army.
Point 1. The discipline of all officers and men of the New People’s Army is a conscious discipline guided by Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, the Communist Party of the Philippines and the organisational principle of democratic centralism. The Party commit- tees in the army shall see to it that the line, policies and decisions of the Party are implemented by the military command at all levels.
Point 2. The New People’s Army adheres to the following discipline:
a. An individual is subordinate to the whole army;
b. The minority is subordinate to the majority;
c. The lower level is subordinate to the higher level; and
d. All members are subordinate to the Military Commission and the Central Committee.
Point 3. All officers and men are prohibited from committing the slightest damage against the interest of the masses and they are always subject to the Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points of Attention of Comrade Mao Zedong so as to always advance their revolutionary integrity.
a. The Three Main Rules of Discipline are:
1) Obey orders in all your actions.
2) Do not take a single needle or piece of thread from the masses.
3) Turn in everything captured.
b. The Eight Points of Attention are:
1) Speak politely.
2) Pay fairly for what you buy.
3) Return everything you borrow.
4) Pay for anything you damage.
5) Do not hit or swear at people.
6) Do not damage crops.
7) Do not take liberties with women.
8) Do not ill-treat captives.
Point 4. All officers are strictly prohibited to use bourgeois and feudal ways in dealing with the fighters and the masses.
Point 5. All officers and men are strictly prohibited from gambling and drunkenness.
Point 6. The Party committee in the army in the appropriate level or the military court that can be created by it, shall conduct the trial and shall decide on the cases filed against officers and men at the level where the error or crime was committed. The following penalties shall be meted out based on the gravity of the crime:
a. Strong warning
b. Strong warning and transfer to another area of work
f. Expulsion and death
Point 7. In all types of penalties, except for expulsion, and expulsion and death, the erring individual or group shall be reeducated for definite period of time and shall also apologize to the aggrieved part: in public.
Point 8. The most severe punishment of expulsion and death shall be imposed to those proven to have committed treachery, capitulation abandonment of post, espionage, sabotage, mutiny, inciting for rebellion, murder, theft, rape, arson and severe malversation of people’s funds.
Point 9. All cases shall be thoroughly investigated and all accused shall be given a just trial.
Point 1. In order to enjoy democracy while maintaining discipline, and in order to avoid ultrademocracy within the New People’s Army, all officers, fighters and Party cadres will conduct discussions and studies among themselves on Mao Zedong Thought, the program, policies and decisions of the Communist Party of the Philippines.
Point 2. All officers and men shall conduct together regular and special meetings of criticism and self-criticism in order to ensure their effectiveness in politics and warfare. Ideological, political, and organizational errors and weaknesses shall be rectified through criticism and self-criticism.
Point 3. There shall be political democracy. This means that both officers and men shall have the freedom to hold meetings and speak freely on how they can advance their proletarian revolutionary consciousness; how to develop closer relationship with the masses; how to improve their fighting capacity; how to attend to their non-military work; and how to upgrade their material conditions.
Point 4. There shall be economic democracy within the ranks. This means that both officers and men shall share in times of austerity and prosperity, enjoy equal material conditions such as equal rations and budget. They have the right to collectively manage their food and finances whereby the soldiers shall elect their representative to assist the company leadership. Anyone has the right to check the accounting and logistics records anytime.
Point 5. There shall be democracy in the military field. This means that both officers and men together shall hold meetings before and after military operations and campaigns. The officers teach the fighters, the fighters teach the officers, and the fighters teach one another regarding operational plans, methods and techniques in warfare and how to win battles.
VI. Military Conferences
Point 1. The Military Commission shall convene a national conference at least once a year to discuss the political and military conditions and the corresponding tasks of the New People’s Army. The conference shall be attended by the Military Commission, the National Operations Command and the Regional Operations Commands. The chairman of the Military Commission shall head the conference.
Point 2. The Military Commission shall convene a regional military conference at least once in six months to discuss the political and military conditions and the corresponding tasks of the New People’s Army in the region. This shall be attended by the representatives of the Military Commission, the Regional Operations Command, the operations commands of the provinces and the regional Party committee. The chief representative of the Military Commission shall head the conference.
Point 3. The Regional Command shall convene a provincial military conference, at least once every four months to discuss the political and military conditions and the corresponding tasks of the New People’s Army in the province. This shall be attended by the representatives of the Regional Operations Command, the Provincial Operations Command, operations commands of the districts and the provincial Party Committee. The chief representative of the Regional Operations Command shall head the conference.
Point 4. The Provincial Operations Command shall convene a district military conference at least once in three months to discuss the political and military conditions and the corresponding tasks of the New People’s Army in the districts. This shall be attended by the representatives of the Provincial Operations Command, the District Operations Command, district Party committee, secretaries of sections of the Party, all the commanders of the units, and all the Party secretaries of the Army. The chief representative of the Provincial Operations Command shall head the conference.
Point 5. All the conferences mentioned may submit recommendations for the Military Commission of the Central Committee to act upon.
VII. The Military Command System
Point 1. The National Operations Command shall be responsible for the implementation of the national and interregional policies and military plans approved by the Military Commission. The Political Bureau and/or the Central Committee shall direct all formations of the armed units of the New People’s Army, and shall make regular and special reports and put forward military recommendations to the Military Commission. The National Operations Command shall be composed of the Commander-in-Chief, his deputies, the regional commanders and their deputies.
Point 2. The Regional Operations Command shall be responsible for the implementation of the regional and interprovincial policies and military plans, direct all formations of armed units of the New People’s Army in the region, and make regular and special reports, and put forward military recommendations to the Military Commission and the National Operations Command. The Regional Operations Command shall be composed of the regional commander, his deputies, the provincial commanders and their deputies.
Point 3. The Provincial Operations Command shall be responsible for the implementation of the provincial and interdistrict policies and military plans, direct all formations of the armed units in the province, and make regular and special reports, and put forward military recommendations to the Regional Operations Command and provincial Party, committee. The Provincial Operations Command shall be composed of the provincial commander, his deputies, the district commanders and their deputies.
Point 4. The District Operations Command shall be responsible for the implementation of the district policies and military plans, direct all formations of the armed units in the district, and make regular and special reports, and put forward military recommendations to the Provincial Operations Command and the district Party committee. The District Operations Command shall be composed of the district commander, his deputies and the commanders of the regular mobile force units, guerrilla units and militia units.
Point 5. The National Operations Command shall be created by the Military Commission. All regional, provincial and district commanders and their respective deputies shall be appointed by the Military Commission, with or without the recommendation of the National Operations Command. All commanders for strategic companies and special operations with national significance shall be appointed by the Military Commission or the Central Committee.
Point 6. Appointment of military commanders shall be determined on the basis of proletarian revolutionary outlook and fighting capacity. However, the commanders of the nonregular units may be developed from the localities in the process of armed struggle.
Point 7. Territorial commanders are superior to the unit commanders and their respective regular territorial command is usually determined by the higher military command.
Point 8. The size and formations of the people’s armed forces under any territorial operations command at any level shall be determined by the development of the people’s war in general. Its corresponding deployment shall be decided based on the need to ensure success in battles and campaigns and the people’s war as a whole.
Point 9. The commanders of the battalion units and succeeding higher levels shall be appointed by the Military Commission upon the recommendation of the National Operations Command. All company commanders shall be appointed by the National Operations Command upon the recommendation of the Party committee. All platoon and squad leaders shall be appointed by their company commander upon the recommendation of the Party group in the squad.
Point 10. In any coordinated operation of all armed unit formations, the regular mobile force shall perform the central task of crushing the enemy.
Point 11. The system of command should not hinder the execution of any immediate military action of any armed unit in a particular area, unless proven that it can affect a bigger military operation against the enemy.
Point 12. The headquarters of the National Operations Command shall be decided upon by the Central Committee or the Military Commission, while the headquarters of the lower command shall be decided upon by the higher command.
VIII. Formations of the People’s Armed Forces
Point 1. The New People’s Army shall have the following combat units:
a. Regular mobile forces
b. Guerrilla units
c. Militia and self-defense units
d. Armed city partisans
Point 2. The regular mobile force shall be formed in the following manner:
a. Squad: five to ten fighters and the squad leader.
b. Platoon: two to three squads and the platoon leader.
c. Company: two to three platoons with a company commander and his deputies.
d. Battalion: two to three companies with the battalion commander’ and his deputies.
e. Regiment: two to three battalions with the regiment commander and his deputies.
f. Division: two to three regiments with the division commander; and his deputies.
g. Corps: two to three divisions with the corps commander and his deputies.
h. Army: two to three corps with the army commander and his deputies.
All territorial and unit commanders shall always endeavor to expand the regular units to their full size.
Point 3. The creation of guerrilla units shall be based on the political situation and the available arms in the area. Merging of one guerrilla unit or parts of it to the regular mobile force shall be decided by the Regional Operations Command, National Operations Command or the Military Commission. Nevertheless, guerrilla units shall be formed continuously as support forces of the regular mobile forces.
Point 4. The militia and self-defense units shall be composed of individuals who maintain their daily economic activities. They shall perform the primary role of defense while serving as vast reserve and support forces to the regular mobile force and guerrilla units.
Point 5. Each unit of armed city partisans shall be composed of not less than three members. They shall develop their skills, tactics and techniques in city operations, intelligence and surveillance, sabotaging the enemy and the reactionary government; heighten the morale of the workers and the urban petty bourgeoisie; and prepare in a protracted manner for a general insurrection in the city as directed by the Military Commission.
Point 6. The unit commanders and their deputies shall compose the unit operations command.
Point 7. The regular mobile force shall distribute arms and ammunitions to guerrilla fighters, militia and self-defense units, and partisan units to increase their fighting capacity; to include them in the regular troops, or to form new fighting units of the same type. Likewise, the guerrilla units shall distribute arms and ammunitions to the militia and self-defense units to increase their fighting capacity, and to create new fighting units of the same type or to develop them into a higher level of combat formation.
Point 8. Party cadres, officers and men of the New People’s Army can be deployed in nonregular armed units as mentioned above in Points 3, 4 and 5.
Point 1. The regular mobile force and the guerrilla units of the New People’s Army shall have a special allotment from the regular budget of the local people’s government, local Party organizations, and/or revolutionary mass organizations.
Point 2. The New People’s Army shall take initiative in forming production units such as units for agriculture, transportation, repair and maintenance, and other enterprises which may be of service to the people and the army and provide for its financial and production requirements.
Point 3. The central government of the people shall sell war bonds or allot a reasonable percentage from the money that it shall print to support the New People’s Army.
Point 4. The New People’s Army shall help the people’s government in collecting taxes from business and agriculture, from which it shall directly receive compensation.
Point 5. The units of the New People’s Army shall help the masses In their work in exchange for material support.
Point 6. Financial and material contributions given by allies and sympathizers particularly for the New People’s Army shall be accepted.
Point 7. A definite percentage from the earnings coming from the confiscated businesses, capital and properties of US imperialism, comprador big bourgeoisie, feudal lords, bureaucrat capitalists and traitors shall be allotted for the use of the New People’s Army.
Point 8. A committee shall be created to keep accounts of logistics.
Point 1. The Central Committee, Political Bureau or the Military Commission of the Communist Party of the Philippines may initiate to make amendments in the Basic Principles and Rules of the New People’s Army.
Point 2. The National Operations Command or any regional operations command may recommend any amendment it deems necessary.
Point 3. The Military Commission and the National Operations Command may issue guidelines and regulations in addition to this Basic Principles and Rules.
Issued by Meeting of the Red Commanders and Fighters, Under the Leadership of the Central Committee and Military Commission of the Communist Party of the Philippines, 29 March 1969