War crimes of the AFP and PNP under the Geneva Conventions and CARHRIHL

, ,
This article is available in PilipinoHiligaynonBisaya

Introduction

This special report of Ang Bayan on “AFP and PNP War Crimes” tackles violations of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) of international humanitarian law as stipulated in the Geneva Conventions and its protocols and provisions of the Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law (CARHRIHL).

This report covers cases of summary executions by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), Philippine National Police (PNP) and armed agents of the GRP against civilians, non-combatants and hors de combat belonging to its armed adversary, particularly members of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP), New People’s Army (NPA), and the National Democratic Front of the Philippines (NDFP).

These cases of killings constitute part of the greater number of criminal cases and abuse of human rights involving the AFP and PNP. This report does not cover hundreds of other cases involving direct attacks against civilians and their communities in course of the counterinsurgency war.

This report aims to expose the GRP and AFP’s grave violations of rules of war in its brutal war against the people. This also aims to serve as recognition of the heroism of murdered revolutionaries, who stood and took part in the struggle for people’s liberation to break the imperialist chains and attain social justice. This forms part of the continuing demand and struggle for justice.

This is an early edition of the report. Ang Bayan continues to gather information and investigate other reports.

Situation in the past 6 years

Over the past six years, at least 101 active and retired members of the CPP, NPA, and consultants and personnel of the NDFP and their civilian companions who were captured, wounded or no longer in the position to fight, were unlawfully killed by GRP’s armed forces.

These killings have intensified since 2020, when the then US-Duterte regime subjected the whole nation to a stringent military and police lockdown. This policy of summary executions continues and further intensifies. According to Ang Bayan’s records, the biggest number of people reported killed was during January to October this year (29), followed by 26 in 2021 and 24 in 2020. Among them, 23 are known as Party members, while 66 were active and former members of the New People’s Army.

Thirty-four of those killed were non-combatants, and 44 were hors de combat or combatants who were no longer in a position to fight. Of the hors de combat, 22 were wounded in encounters (WIA, wounded-in-action) who were “finished off” instead of being arrested and cared for. Of the non-combatants, 19 were members of the Party and the NDFP who were not directly involved in the armed conflict or were not in the battlefield. Ten were in possession of documents of the Joint Agreement on Safety and Immunity Guarantees (JASIG) identifying them as NDFP consultants in peace talks. Of the civilians, 20 were retired members of the Party and the NPA and already old.

They were all summarily executed by armed state agents. Many were arrested, secretly detained, and subjected to torture before being killed. There were six massacres involving 29 victims.

In reports gathered by Ang Bayan from various Party and NPA units, the biggest number of victims was in Negros (17), follow by Bicol (16), North Central Mindanao (12), Panay (11), Southern Mindanao (9) and Eastern Visayas (8). The list is still being completed. Other reports are expected to come from areas which are highly militarized and where information is difficult to attain.

More than half (53) of those murdered were made to appear by the military to have been killed in armed battles (killed-in-action) and 12 were said to have “resisted arrest” while being “served with warrants.” Almost all were planted with guns, explosives, “subversive documents” and various other “evidence” to cover up the crime. At least six of the remains were dressed by the military to make them look like combatants.

In many cases, the AFP posted photos of their bloodied cadavers on social media to mock and subject them to online trolling. In a number of cases, cadavers were embalmed, buried or cremated without the consent of families. There were also cadavers held “hostage” by the military and made it difficult for the families to retrieve them.

Violations of applicable laws of war

All above-mentioned incidents violate the rules of war as provided for under the Geneva Conventions and its additional protocols that protect the rights of the people in times of war, both combatants and civilians. These also violate the CARHRIHL between the NDFP and GRP.

Geneva Conventions

The Geneva Conventions are valid and applies to the ongoing civil war in the Philippines. The GRP signed it, including its three protocols and two additional agreements on the care of children in times of war. On July 5, 1996, the NDFP also submitted a declaration recognizing the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Protocol I to its official depository, the Federal Council of the Swiss government.

The NDFP, for its part, introduced itself as the “political authority representing the Filipino people and organized political forces that are waging an armed revolutionary struggle for national liberation and democracy, in the exercise of the right of self-determination within the purview of Article 1, paragraph 4, of Protocol I against the persistent factors and elements of colonial domination and against national oppression, including chauvinism and racism, victimizing the entire Filipino nation and particular minorities in the Philippines.”

In advancing armed resistance, the NDFP informs and trains officials, commanders and fighters of the NPA on the rules of civilized warfare. In fact, the NPA has long promoted such rules in upholding its Three Points of Discipline and Eight Points of Attention, which sets the bar higher and more comprehensive than the Geneva Conventions. The NDFP declaration binds itself to the same rights and obligations as those of the GRP when it signed the same rules of war. The NDFP recognizes that both GRP and NDFP should comply with these rules.

In the same declaration, the NDFP clearly identified the legitimate targets of war: the forces of the military, police, paramilitary and its intelligence agents. Clearly, personnel of the GRP civil bureaucracy, are not targets unless in specific cases they belong to any of the four abovestated categories.

Thus, the NDFP will consider all military personnel, police, paramilitary and other armed forces of the GRP that may be captured by its forces as prisoners of war, and will assert that the GRP treat and respect the rights of all captured personnel of the NPA and all other forces represented by the NDFP as prisoners of war.

CARHRIHL

Both the GRP and NDFP are signatories to the CARHRIHL. This is an agreement forged through peace talks and signed by the NDFP principal Mariano Orosa on April 10, 1998 and GRP principal Joseph Estrada on August 7, 1998.

One of the objectives of this agreement is to “to affirm and apply the principles of international humanitarian law in order to protect the civilian population and individual civilians, as well as persons who do not take direct part or who have ceased to take part in the armed hostilities, including persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict (or prisoners of war).”

The NPA’s strict adherence to these rules has been proven in practice. In actual sites of armed battles, the NPA treats the wounded. It protects the rights of prisoners of war and treats them humanely. The NDFP has also released prisoners of war several times on humanitarian grounds and worked to ensure their safe and orderly release. It coordinates with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to ensure that the releases are orderly and safe.

The Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) was established as a mechanism to implement the CARHRIHL. It is tasked to “receive complaints of violations of human rights and international humanitarian law and all pertinent information and shall initiate requests or recommendations for the implementation of this Agreement.” On January 21, 2017, the GRP and NDFP signed the rules for the full operation of the JMC under CARHRIHL, before the then Duterte regime unilaterally ended peace talks. However, this agreement remains in force, as do other earlier agreements.

In all these agreements, all NPA fighters are considered combatants as armed forces under the NDFP. They have the right to take part in the armed conflict. In cases where they are captured by GRP forces, they have rights that protect their lives and rights in accordance with the rules of international humanitarian law.

As prisoners of war, they cannot be punished for their direct participation in the armed conflict. They cannot be criminally charged and prosecuted.

Killing, torture, mutilation, brutality, humiliating or degrading treatment, hostage-taking and subjecting them to unfair trial are outrightly prohibited. They must be given food and drink. They need to be given access to legal representation and to their loved ones. Sick captives must be cared for. All those who cannot be cared for must be released immediately.

Capturing forces do not need to recognize the authority or government of their captured enemy combatants. Neither do they have to be members of the regular army as long as they clearly distinguish themselves from civilians. As long as the forces or authorities to which they belong comply with the four conventions of international law and recognize the rules of war, they will be granted protections in accordance with the four Geneva Conventions and its protocols.

Murders, torture, illegal detention and other systematic and serious violations of the rules of war can be brought before international courts.

AFP-PNP and GRP war crimes

1) Killing of captives

At 8 o’clock in the evening of October 29, 2021, soldiers of the 403rd IB accosted Ka Oris (Jorge Madlos), national spokesperson of the NPA, and his medic Eighfel dela Peña while traveling to Sayre Highway from Barangay Poblacion, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. The following day, the AFP announced the killing of Madlos and Dela Peña. The military claimed that they were killed in an encounter around 11 a.m. in Sitio Gabunan, Barangay Dumalaguing in the same town, 15 hours after they were arrested. The site became the target of an aerial strike that lasted for an hour in the early morning of October 30, 2021. Madlos was leaving the guerrilla zone to seek medical treatment for his illness. The two drivers who accompanied Madlos were also reported missing.

Almost a year later, in almost the same place, Madlos’ son and daughter-in-law, Vincent Isagani Madlos and Glory Vic Belandres, were captured and claimed to have been killed in battle. The couple were arrested near the Atugan Bridge in Impasug-ong on September 3, 2022 around 10 a.m. They were claimed to have been killed in an encounter in Barangay Kapitan Bayong in the same town in the afternoon of the same day. The younger Madlos also left the guerrilla zone to seek treatment for an injury sustained in an earlier battle. In photos spread by the military on the internet, the two can be seen wearing travel clothes (white t-shirt, jeans and white rubber shoes).

In Barangay Carabalan, Himamaylan City, Negros Occidental, Juanito Magbanua (Romeo Nanta) was arrested before he was killed by troops of the 94th IB in a house he was staying in on October 10, 2022. Despite the fact that there was no NPA unit at the scene, the AFP claimed that Magbanua, spokesperson of the NPA-Negros, was “killed in battle.”

Juanita Dore, a retired member of the Party who was already weak and suffering from an illness, was made to suffer the same torment. She was arrested and claimed to have been killed in an encounter on February 14, 2020 in Malabuan, Makilala, North Cotabato. Her body was riddled with bullets. Another case was the arrest and subsequent murder of Floreta Ceballos and Wilfredo Fuentes, who were captured while travelling, and subsequently claimed by the military to have been killed in an encounter on December 19, 2021 in San Pablo, Manapla, Negros Occidental. Ceballos’ chest had several stab wounds, her skull was cracked, and her arms bore numerous wound marks. Fuentes’ corpse showed marks of torture.

2) Mass murder or massacres

The seven-person NDF-Panay propaganda committee were sleeping in a house in Barangay Atabay, San Jose, Antique in Panay on August 15, 2018 when they were fired upon by elements of the 301st IBde, 61st IB and provincial police. The following morning, the military and police claimed that it “exchanged gunfire” with the seven identified as Felix Salditos, Eldie Labinghisa, Jason Talibo, Jayson Sanchez, Peter Mecenas, Karen Ceralvo and Liezel Bandiola. Ceralvo had gunshot wounds to her face and head, while Bandiola’s head was cracked due to gunshot wounds. They were in the area to conduct research and writing. Four of them were well-known poets, including Salditos who is known for his visual works as Mayamor. They were not armed. They are remembered as the Antique 7.

Andres Hubilla and Miguel Hamor, and farmer Arnel Borres and fisherman Dick Laura were having coffee when soldiers of the 31st IB shot them in Sitio Namuro, Purok Trece Martires, Casiguran, Sorsogon on July 28, 2017. In a report by Karapatan-Bicol, residents of Sitio Namuro narrated that before the massacre, checkpoints were set up in the area that were manned by soldiers in full battle gear. They said they heard gunshots that lasted for five minutes. Hubilla’s brother, who joined the police investigation after the massacre, was surprised that his brother was holding a gun without a magazine in his right hand, even though he was left-handed.

In Negros Island, eight victims were killed in two incidents of mass murder of Red fighters who were no longer able to fight. Marilyn Badayos, Rudy Carbajosa, Ronilo Desabille and Rufino Bocaval were killed on September 30, 2021 in San Pablo, Manapla, Negros Occidental. They were recovering from flu inside a house when soldiers entered and shot them. The same thing was done against Nikka de la Cruz, Roel Ladera, Alden Rodriguez and Roel Deguit, who were all ill when brutally killed by soldiers on July 6, 2022 in Santol, Binalbagan in the same province.

In Talakag, Bukidnon on April 6, 2022, elements of the 1st Special Forces Battalion captured four fighters who decided not to fight to avoid harming civilians. Carlicio D. Sumalinog, Jovilito Pontillas, Garry Juliana and Jelly Sugnot were arrested in the morning, made to board two private vehicles and taken away from Barangay Tikalaan. In the evening, they were brought back to the said barangay and killed there. The military falsely claimed they were killed in an encounter around 6 p.m. of the same day. Sugnot was two months pregnant at the time.

3) Abduction, illegal detention and torture

Spouses Antonio Cabanatan, 74, and Florenda Yap, 65, both retired members of the Party, were last seen in October 2020 when they left their home in Metro Manila. Three months later, they were found killed in a military safehouse in Botong, Oton, Iloilo on December 26, 2020. Their bodies had several stab wounds and Cabanatan’s neck bore marks of strangulation. According to residents in the area, a van arrived at the house on the night of December 25, 2020 and left a few hours later. The next day, the village captain “saw” Cabanatan’s body which was deliberately left in front of the house to be found. The killing of the two were made to appear like a case of robbery and murder.

The 1001st Bde of the Phiiippine Army held Ezequil Daguman, NPA commander in South Mindanao Region and a JASIG holder, incommunicado for two weeks. Daguman was last seen on March 7 on his way to a community in New Corella, Davao del Norte. After the NDF-SMR called on the military to surface and release him, he was presented dead on March 27. The military claimed that he was killed in an encounter between the NPA and AFP in Maragusan, Davao de Oro.

Soldiers of the 88th IB also arrested Pedro Codaste and his companion Ka Sandro, in a house they were staying in Cagayan de Oro City on January 19, 2022. Six days later, they were claimed to have been “killed in battle” in Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. Codaste is a consultant of the NDFP in peace talks and is also covered by the JASIG.

4) Cold-blooded killing

Julius Giron, Ma. Lourdes Dineros Tangco and Arvie Alarcon Reyes were mercilessly killed when the military raided their residence in Hamada Subdivision, Barangay Queen of Peace, Baguio City at 3 a.m. on March 13, 2020. Giron was then convalescing from an illness.

Much earlier, state elements killed Bicol region Party leader Alfredo Merilos while recuperating from hypertension and eye illnes in a Naga City subdivision on March 15, 2018. The military also killed civilian Liz Ocampo.

On January 30, 2019 in Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya, the military killed Felix Randy Malayao, NDFP peace consultant for Cagayan Valley, while he was sleeping on a bus going to Baguio.

Randall Echanis was recovering from an illness in his rented home in Novaliches, Quezon City when he was killed by the military on the night of August 10, 2020. The NDFP consultant and deputy secretary general of Anakpawis had three stab wounds at his back.

The same was the case in the killing of spouses Eugenia Magpantay and Agaton Topacio, retired party leaders from Central Luzon, at a house in Angono, Rizal on November 25, 2020 at 3 a.m.

Reynaldo Bocala, NDFP consultant for Visayas, and his companion Ka Ramon (Willy Arguelles) were killed in their residence in Pavia, Iloilo on May 28, 2021. The military and police claimed that he fought back while being served with an arrest warrant. On the same day, Fr. Rustico Tan, former NDFP consultant for Visayas, was mercilessly killed in his house in Pilar, Camotes Island, Cebu. He has long been living a civilian life.

Spouses Rodrigo Mejica Lorezo and Delia Rosco Rotalan, and Amado and Maria Norie Adelantar, all retired, were similarly killed in two separate incidents in Samar in 2022 by state forces.

Alvin Luque and his civilian companion were also shot dead while sleeping in a house in San Agustin Sur, Tandag City, Surigao del Sur on December 10, 2021. The same was done to Jhon Niebres (Ka Parts Bagani) Peñaranda who was killed in Barangay Cannery, Polomolok, South Cotabato on August 21, 2021, and Dennis Rodinas who was killed in Sibugay, Cebu on October 10, 2021. Although NPA commanders, Peñaranda and Rodinas were not armed and far away from warfronts, when they were killed.

5) Murder of arrested wounded and sick

Menandro Villanueva, NPA national commander, was captured on December 25, 2021, in a battle in Davao de Oro. Villanueva was held incommunicado for 12 days before the 10th ID announced that he was killed in a “battle.”

Kerima Tariman was reported to have been wounded only on her hand in a battle where she was captured on August 20, 2021 in Barangay Kapitan Ramon in Silay City, Negros Occidental, before being killed by AFP soldiers. Tariman was a well-known poet and a writer before she decided to join the revolutionary movement as a fulltime fighter.

In Kalayaan, Laguna, the military captured wounded fighter Mario Caraig in a house, where he was subsequently finished off on August 8, 2020, four days after the encounter where he was injured. The soldiers also arrested three civilians who cared for Caraig and detained them in their camp in Tanay, Rizal.

Scope, restrictions and responsibilities

In accordance with the provisions of the Geneva Conventions and the CARHRIHL, the international humanitarian law covers the following:

a) civilians or those taking no active part in the hostilities;

b) members of armed forces who have surrendered or laid down their arms;

c) those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds or any other cause;

d) persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict; and,

e) relatives and duly authorized representatives of above-named persons.

These guidelines strictly prohibits, whenever and anywhere, the following acts:

a) violence to life and person, particularly killing or causing injury, being subjected to physical or mental torture, mutilation, corporal punishment, cruel or degrading treatment and all acts of violence and reprisals, including hostage-taking, and acts against the physical well-being, dignity, political convictions and other human rights;

b) holding anyone responsible for an act that she/he has not committed and punishing anyone without complying with all the requisites of due process;

c) requiring persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict to disclose information other than their identity;

d) desecration of the remains of those who have died in the course of the armed conflict or while under detention, and breach of duty to tender immediately such remains to their families or to give them decent burial;

e) failure to report the identity, personal condition and circumstances of a person deprived of his/her liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict to the Parties to enable them to perform their duties and responsibilities under this Agreement and under international humanitarian law;

f) denial of the right of relatives and duly authorized representatives of a person deprived of liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict to inquire whether a person is in custody or under detention, the reasons for the detention, under what circumstances the person in custody is being detained, and to request directly or through mutually acceptable intermediaries for his/her orderly and expeditious release.

In particular, all persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to the armed conflict shall be treated humanely, provided with adequate food and drinking water, and be afforded safeguards as regards to health and hygiene, and be confined in a secure place. Sufficient information shall be made available concerning persons who have been deprived of their liberty. On humanitarian or other reasonable grounds, such persons deprived of liberty shall be considered for safe release.

Their relatives can cooperate with the ICRC and other humanitarians and/or medical entities so that they can take care of the sick and the wounded, and perform their humanitarian missions and activities.

References:

Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries, Philippines
https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/vwTreatiesByCountrySelected.xsp?xp_countrySelected=PH&nv=4

Philippines, Application of IHL by the National Democratic Front of the Philippines
https://casebook.icrc.org/case-study/philippines-application-ihl-national-democratic-front-philippines

Primer on the CARHRIHL, the Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) and the Joint Secretariat of JMC, NDFP Human Rights Monitoring Committee, December 2005

GRP, NDF seal guidelines for joint monitoring committee, score victory
https://peace.gov.ph/2017/01/grp-ndf-seal-guidelines-joint-monitoring-committee-score-victor/

Red salute

The Communist Party of the Philippines and the entire revolutionary movement recognize and give its Red salute to all comrades who served in the struggle for national liberation and democracy. They will forever remain in the people’s collective memory. Until attained, the cry for justice will continue to resound.

Edwin Demetera {Ka Duppax} (2017-06-13, Magallanes, Sorsogon), Dick Laura (2017-07-28, Casiguran, Sorsogon), Arnel Borres (2017-07-28, Casiguran, Sorsogon), Andres Hubilla {Ka Magno} (2017-07-28, Casiguran, Sorsogon), Miguel Himor {Ka Billy} (2017-07-28, Casiguran, Sorsogon), Alfredo Merilos {Ka Bendoy} (2018-03-15, Naga City, Camarines Sur), Liz Ocampo (2018-03-15, Naga City, Camarines Sur), Jeric Gestone {Ka Ems} (2018-03-15, Camarines Sur), Felix Salditos {Ka Mayamor/Maya Daniel/Dudi} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Peter Mecenas Jr {Ka Elton} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Eldie Labinghisa {Ka Ipoy} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Liezel Bandiola {Ka Mayang} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Karen Ceralvo {Ka Liway} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Jayson Sanchez (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Jason Talibo {Ka Bebe} (2018-08-15, San Jose, Antique), Manuel Nacis (2018-12-09, Presentacion, Camarines Sur), Dante Tibagos {Ka Heart} (2019-01-02, Masbate), Randy Malayao (2019-01-30, Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya), Marjun Casal {Ka Hiker} (2019-11-27, Laak, Compostela Valley), Ermin Bellen {Ka Romano} (2019-12-05, Antipolo City, Rizal), Jose Villahermosa (2019-12-05, Antipolo City, Rizal), Lucio Simburoto (2019-12-05, Antipolo City, Rizal), Manuel Magante Gilo (2020-02-06, San Ignacio, Butuan City), Julius Marquez {Ka Goyo} (2020-02-13, Santa Lucia, Ilocos Sur), Ennabel Balunos {Ka Onor} (2020-02-13, Santa Lucia, Ilocos Sur), Ma. Finela Mejia {Ka Ricky} (2020-02-13, Santa Lucia, Ilocos Sur), Juanita Dore {Ka Maring} (2020-02-14, Makilala, North Cotabato), Salvador Nordan {Ka Bulig} (2020-03-06, Catarman, Northern Samar), Julius Giron {Ka Nars} (2020-03-13, Barangay Queen of Peace, Baguio City), Ma. Lourdes Dineros Tangco (2020-03-13, Barangay Queen of Peace, Baguio City), Arvie Alarcon Reyes (2020-03-13, Barangay Queen of Peace, Baguio City), Lorelyn Saligumba {Ka Farah} (2020-06-04, Baco, Mindoro Oriental), Mario Caraig {Ka Jethro} (2020-08-08, Kalayaan, Laguna), Junior Valdez (2020-08-08, Santa Lucia, Ilocos Sur), Randall Echanis (2020-08-10, Quezon City, (None)), Louie Tagapia (2020-08-10, Novaliches, Quezon City), Dennis Rodinas {Ka Mayen} (2020-10-11, Sibugay, Cebu), Wency Dejucos {Ka Tora} (2020-10-17, Bulan, Sorsogon), Leonido Nabong {Ka Charo} (2020-11-13, Tampilisan, Zamboanga del Norte), Eugenia Magpantay {Ka Fiel} (2020-11-25, Angono, Rizal), Agaton Topacio {Ka Boy} (2020-11-25, Angono, Rizal), TNU {Ka Sarge} (2020-12-02, Lake Sebu, South Cotabato), Romeo Libron {Ka Melvin} (2020-12-02, Lake Sebu, South Cotabato), Alvin Luque {Ka Joaquin} (2020-12-10, Tandag City, Surigao del Sur), Antonio Cabanatan {Ka Manlimbasog} (2020-12-26, Oton, Iloilo), Florenda Yap {Ka Osang} (2020-12-26, Oton, Iloilo), Preciano Galleon {Ka Penoy} (2021-01-20, Matalom, Leyte), Michael Bagasala (2021-01-24, Barcelona, Sorsogon), Reynato Matos {Ka Roy} (2021-03-02, Maco, Davao del Sur), Carlito Perez {Ka Real} (2021-03-21, Balatan, Camarines Sur), TNU {Ka Jeck-Jeck} (2021-03-24, Barangay Trinidad, Guihulngan City), TNU {Ka Jk} (2021-03-24, Barangay Trinidad, Guihulngan City), TNU {Ka Michael} (2021-04-21, Hinoba-an, Negros Occidental), TNU {Ka Kenken} (2021-04-21, Hinoba-an, Negros Occidental), Lowel Riza Mendoza {Ka Bernie} (2021-05-21, Sta. Rosa, Laguna), Christine Estocado {Ka Billy} (2021-05-21, Sta. Rosa, Laguna), Christopher Buton {Ka Omar} (2021-05-21, Sta. Rosa, Laguna), Fr. Rustico Tan {Ka Tony} (2021-05-28, Pilar, Camotes Island), Reynaldo Bocala {Ka Minoy} (2021-05-28, Pavia, Iloilo), Willy Arguelles (2021-05-28, Pavia, Iloilo), Kerima Tariman {Ka Ella} (2021-08-20, Silay City, Negros Occidental), Jhon Niebres Peñaranda {Parts Bagani} (2021-08-21, Polomolok, South Cotabato), Dioscorro L. Roma {Ka JR} (2021-09-12, Lupi, Camarines Sur), Marilyn Badayos {Ka Monet} (2021-09-30, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Rudy Carbajosa {Ka Brod} (2021-09-30, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Ronilo Desabille {Ka Huawei} (2021-09-30, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Rufino Bocaval {Ka Simo} (2021-09-30, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Jorge Madlos {Ka Oris} (2021-10-29, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), Eighfel de la Peña {Ka Pika} (2021-10-29, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), Floreta Ceballos {Ka Kelly} (2021-12-09, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Wilfredo Fuentes (2021-12-09, Manapla, Negros Occidental), Menandro Villanueva {Ka Bok} (2021-12-25, Mabini, Davao de Oro), Sandra Reyes {Ka Kaye} (2021-12-25, Mabini, Davao de Oro), Pedro Codaste {Ka Gonyong} (2022-01-25, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), TNU {Ka Sandro} (2022-01-25, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), Jelan Pinakilid {Ka Baking} (2022-02-18, Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental), Darling Bago Pinakilid {Ka Yandie} (2022-02-18, Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental), Virgilio Marco Tamban {Ka Bidam} (2022-03-09, Isabela, Negros Occidental), Ben Jack Rueles {Ka Yuhan} (2022-03-09, Isabela, Negros Occidental), Bryan Obin {Ka Tanel} (2022-03-12, Las Navas, Western Samar), Amado Adelantar {Ka Butil} (2022-03-16, Jiabong, Western Samar), Marie Norie Adelantar {Ka Tutri} (2022-03-16, Jiabong, Western Samar), TNU {Ka Prex} (2022-03-25, Catubig, Northern Samar), Ezequiel Daguman {Ka Jess} (2022-03-25, Maragusan, Davao de Oro), Carlicio Sumalinog {Ka Wong} (2022-04-06, Talakag, Bukidnon), Jovilito Pontillas {Ka Zelong} (2022-04-06, Talakag, Bukidnon), Gary I Juliana {Ka Tata} (2022-04-06, Talakag, Bukidnon), Jelly Sugnot {Ka Kian} (2022-04-06, Talakag, Bukidnon), Antonio Abadeza {Ka Jovan} (2022-05-28, Daraga, Albay), Nikka de la Cruz {Ka Chai} (2022-07-06, Binalbagan, Negros Occidental), Roel Ladera {Ka Jack} (2022-07-06, Binalbagan, Negros Occidental), Alden Rodriguez {Ka Rocky} (2022-07-06, Binalbagan, Negros Occidental), Roel Deguit {Ka Caloy} (2022-07-06, Binalbagan, Negros Occidental), Rodrigo Mejica Lorezo {Ka Kute/Akag} (2022-08-07, San Jose de Buan, Western Samar), Delia Rosco Rotalan {Ka Kanay} (2022-08-07, San Jose de Buan, Western Samar), Vincent Madlos {Ka Yuno} (2022-09-03, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), Glory Vic Belandres {Ka Layka} (2022-09-03, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon), Lonie Hainampos Pison (2022-09-30, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur), Jessa Terol Empoy (2022-09-30, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur), Carlito Ahina (2022-10-08, Palanas, Masbate), Romeo Nanta {Ka Juanito Magbanua} (2022-10-10, Himamaylan City, Negros Occidental)

War crimes of the AFP and PNP under the Geneva Conventions and CARHRIHL